Virtual Library

October 25, 2016

Books and films you should not miss
if you are interested in the history of totalitarianism

Selected by Platform Chief Librarian Prof. Dr. Hannes Hólmstein Gissurarson, Professor of Political Theory from the School of Social Sciences, University of Iceland in Reykjavik.
A click on the cover will take you to the title offered on



Thirty-Five Books on Communism

blackbookofcommunismlarger The Black Book of Communism, by Stéphane Courtois and others.

French Scholars, many former Communists, went through newly available archives in Russia and elsewhere and then presented their case: Communism cost around 100 million lives. The definitive account of Communism.




gulag-archipelagoThe Gulag Archipelago, I-IV, by Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn.

A vivid and sometimes horrifying account of the slave labour camps, scattered like islands around the Soviet Union, by a former inmate who received the Nobel Prize in literature for his work.





animalfarmAnimal Farm, by George Orwell.

A savage satire of the Russian Revolution where Comrade Napoleon takes over and the hopes of the other animals are dashed. “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” A 20th Century classic.






1984_dv_20090720104848Nineteen Eighty Four, by George Orwell.

The most powerful dystopia (anti-utopia) ever written. Orwell describes a totalitarian society where the faceless rulers do not only seek to control the activities of their subjects, but also their minds. You are required to love Big Brother. His description bears an uncanny resemblance to the reality of 20th Century totalitarian countries.




darkness-at-noonDarkness at Noon, by Arthur Koestler.

A modern masterpiece: a novel about Stalin’s purges, especially the 1938 Moscow trials of Bukharin and other Old Bolsheviks who confessed to all kinds of heinous crimes. Koestler’s explanation was that they had transferred all moral authority to the Party.





220px-thegodthatfailedThe God That Failed, by Arthur Koestler and others.

Six essays on communism, very well written and thoughtful, by distinguished writers who had either been staunch communists or fellow travellers: Arthur Koestler, Richard Wright, Ignazio Silone, André Gide, Louis Fischer and Stephen Spender.





ichosefredom2I Chose Freedom, by Victor Kravchenko.

The publication of this book was a sensation, Kravchenko having been a Soviet official, making his escape in Washington DC. No less a sensation was a subsequent libel trial in Paris on his book where several witnesses turned up not only for him (ex-prisoners), but also for the defendant, a communist magazine, including his Russian ex-wife.




outofthenightOut of the Night, by Jan Valtin (Richard Krebs).

The autobiography of a seaman who worked for Comintern and also as a double agent for Gestapo, and escaped to the US. Racy writing on an interesting life. Almost as good a picture of the interwar years as Stefan Zweig’s book is about pre-1914 Europe.





thegreatterrorThe Great Terror, by Robert Conquest.

A well-written and thoroughly researched description of Stalin’s purges in the 1930s. As one Sovietologist said, it is “not only an odyssey of madness, tragedy and sadism, but a work of scholardship and literary craftsmanship”.





412ltecznl-_sx320_bo1204203200_The Harvest of Sorrow, by Robert Conquest.

A history of the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, enforced by dispossession and deportation of millions of farmers, and the famine of 1932–33 inflicted by the Soviet state on peasants.






51eueeub2bl-_sx318_bo1204203200_Gulag: A History, by Anne Applebaum.

A fully-documented history of the Soviet concentration camps, from their origins in the Russian Revolution, through their expansion under Stalin, to their collapse in the era of Glasnost.





51bippum0ll-_sx322_bo1204203200_Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler, by Margarete Buber-Neumann.

The author was the wife of a German communist who moved to Russia in the 1930s. While he was shot in Stalin’s purges, she was imprisoned. When Stalin made the Non-Aggression Pact with Hitler, he handed her and other communists over to the Nazis.





41dw7jcrqll-_sx373_bo1204203200_Baltic Eclipse, by Ants Oras

A deeply-felt and moving account of the tragedy of the three Baltic republics that all gained independence in 1918, only to be occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940. Written by an Estonian professor of English literature who managed to escape to the West.





51xvlmmlqcl-_sx349_bo1204203200_El Campesino. Life and Death in the Soviet Union, by Valentín Gonzalez (and Julián Gorkín).

The author, a general in the Spanish Republican Army, fled after its defeat to the Soviet Union where he was initially warmly received, but then put into a prison camp for being critical and outspoken. By an extraordiary chain of events, he escaped to Iran by walking through most of Central Asia.




md14188856042Nightmare of the Innocent, by Otto Larsen.

The author was a Norwegian communist who had willingly worked for the Soviets, but found himself arrested in Murmansk after the Second World War, having to spend eight years on false charges in Soviet prison camps. Bertrand Russell wrote: “I am impressed by the unadorned truthfulness of the narrative and by the wealth of illuminating detail.”




blankbookUncle: Give us Bread, by Arne Strom.

An account by a Danish poultry farmer of his stay, as a foreign specialist, in the early 1930s in the Soviet Union where he witnessed the brutality and inefficiency of the Bolshevik regime, leading to a famine in a very fertile land. The book, written in accessible, plain prose, had great impact on Winston Churchill.




41-nwgrgcfl-_sl256_Eleven Years in Soviet Prison Camps, by Elinor Lipper

The author was a Swiss communist who had moved to Moscow in 1937, but was arrested as a spy after only a few months and sent to Siberian prison camps. Of special interest is her account of the visit by the easily deceived US Vice President Henry Wallace to her prison camp.





51brgoczk5l-_sx324_bo1204203200_Hope Against Hope, by Nadezhda Mandelstam

The story of Osip Mandelstam, written by his wife. Mandelstam, one of Russia’s most gifted poets, provoked the ire of Stalin and his henchmen by writing a powerful satirical poem about the dictator. He perished in transit to a prison camp in Siberia. The allusion in the title is not only to holy scripture, but also to the author’s name: Nadezhda in Russian is Hope. One critic said that her book was a “masterpiece of prose as well as a model of biographical narrative and social analysis”.



51aqijefivl-_sx331_bo1204203200_Witness, by Whittaker Chambers

A true story of Soviet spies in the United States, written by a former communist who saw the conflict with communism as the epic struggle of modern times. A very influential book in the US, written with passion and eloquence.






20619814-_uy200_The New Class. An Analysis of the Communist System, by Milovan Djilas

The author was a Yugoslav communist and partisan, close to Tito, but he turned his back on communism when he witnessed the emergence of a communist society where all citizens were equal, but some were more equal than others. As his publishers wrote: “In the end, what this book provides is not only a denunciation of Communism, but stirring proof of the fact that anyone with intellectual honesty and personal integrity must turn away from it.” For writing the book, Djilas was sent to prison.



51gkkq7htll-_sx329_bo1204203200_Against All Hope. A Memoir of Life in Castro’s Gulag, by Armando Valladares.

Slowly, the world is realizing that Casto was no better than other communist dictators. This change in attitudes was not least brought about by Armando Valladares, who was imprisoned in Cuba for over twenty years and only released after heavy pressure on the Cuban government. Valladares survived by praying and writing poetry.




41azbl4mqol-_sx333_bo1204203200_Eleni, by Nicholas Gage.

Nicholas Gage, an investigative New York Times reporter, traced the story of his Greek mother who resisted the forced abduction of her children by the communists during the 1948 Civil War in Greece, and was therefore imprisoned, tortured and executed in cold blood. A film has been made out of the story with John Malkovich as Gage.




511-hejghll-_sx329_bo1204203200_Life and Death in Shanghai, by Cheng Nien

A first-hand account of China’s brutal cultural revolution, by an elegant and well-educated Chinese lady, imprisoned by the Red Guards, but steadfastly refusing to confess to any of their absurd charges. Upon her release, she found out that the Red Guards had killed her daughter.




51mjagythal-_sx324_bo1204203200_Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China, by Jung Chang

The story of three generations of women in 20th Century China, the author’s grandmother, a warlord’s concubine, her mother, a member of the communist elite, and herself, a Red Guard during the Cultural Revolution, but later a strong anti-communist.





519fqvmbxnl-_sx329_bo1204203200_Mao: The Unknown Story, by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday.

An authoritative biography of Mao, full of startling revelations about one of the most cruel communist leaders of modern times. The result of tireless effort and countless interviews with all kind of people, high and low.





51fw5rldxwl-_sx330_bo1204203200_Mao’s Great Famine, by Frank Dikötter.

The history of China’s most devastating catastrophe, the famine of 1958–1962, when Mao Zedong threw his country into a frenzy with the Great Leap Forward. Probably around 45 million people were worked, starved, or beaten to death, while the greatest demolition of real estate in the human history also took place. Dikötter, a Professor of History in Hong Kong, had access to regional archives never investigated before.




519msg3x9jl-_sx327_bo1204203200_The Cultural Revolution, by Frank Dikötter.

The history of Mao’s ambitious scheme to eliminate those he considered his enemies, with the result that China descended into chaos. The Wall Street Journal wrote: “For those who have swallowed the poisonous claim that the Communist Party deserves some credit for China’s current patchy prosperity, Mr. Dikötter provides the antidote.”





51kxvektgul-_sy346_The Tragedy of Liberation, by Frank Dikötter.

A history of the Chinese Revolution 1945–1957, when the communists imposed their violent and brutal rule on Chinese society, stripping ordinary citizens not only of their property but also of their dignity, and sometimes of their lives, in a an orgy of denunciations, accusations and executions.





514fjbddhl-_sx322_bo1204203200_Nothing to Envy, by Barbara Demick.

Gripping tales of six individuals in North Korea, one of the few remaining communists countries in the world, told by an American journalist based in Beijing. The characters in this true story are followed for fifteen years, in their desperate struggle for survival in one of the world’s most extraordinary societies.





51-naxpljgl-_sx320_bo1204203200_We, by Yevgeny Zamyatin.

Written in 1921, the Russian author Zamyatin descibes the disappearance of individuality in a society nominally organised for the collective good. Clearly aimed at the Bolshevik revolutionaries and a clear inspiration for Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four, it is still relevant.





51qaktyvpjl-_sx334_bo1204203200_I Am David, by Anne Holm.

Even if this novel is mainly aimed at teenagers, it can be read and enjoyed by all. David is a 12 year old boy in a communist concentration camp who manages to escape and subsequently undertakes a journey through Europe to the free country of Denmark. Meanwhile, he slowly recovers a belief in the goodness of people. The novel has also been published under the title “North to Freedom”. A film has been made from it.




311x-vyefl-_bo1204203200_We the Living, by Ayn Rand.

The story of the courageous and independent Kira Argounova who has the misfortune of growing up in the Soviet Union in the 1920s. Torn between two lovers, her family and her dreams of a career, she tries to escape to the West where people can assert their individuality and make choices. Based on Ayn Rand’s own experience of living under communism, it is her most emotionally rich novel. A film was made in the 1940s from the novel and redone in 1986.




515goil2vl-_sx364_bo1204203200_When the Kissing Had to Stop, by Constantine Fitzgibbon.

Set in Britain in the 1960s, this novel describes how the communists take over, with the connivance of gullible peaceniks, and slowly strangle liberty, with slave camps as the proper destination for dissenting voices. It is well-written, with an cast of colourful characters. In 1962, ITV produced a television drama based on the story.




51wbv1xjhql-_sx322_bo1204203200_The Fellow-Travellers, by David Caute.

An account of the intellectual friends of communism: those who did not publicly join communist parties, but who defended them and the communist regimes directly or indirectly, people such as Heinrich Mann, Sidney and Beatrice Webb and Jean-Paul Sartre. Their gullibility and willingness to go along with everything Moscow announced certainly was astonishing.





51kb24zeezl-_sx326_bo1204203200_Political Pilgrims, by Paul Hollander.

The extraordinary and sometimes tragicomic story of Western intellectuals in search of the good society which they believed they could find in the communist countries. Mercilessly criticizing their own societies, they blithely ignored the oppression and squalor which could clearly be seen in all the communist countries they visited.




51tvvn7gm8l-_sx306_bo1204203200_Communism: A History, by Richard Pipes.

A concise account of communism from the early days to its worldwide demise, except in marginal states like North Korea and Cuba. Communists attempted a comprehensive reorganisation of society. Pipes, a Harvard Professor, is particularly strong in exploring the links between the theory of Marx and Engels and the practice of Lenin, Stalin and Mao.





Fifteen Films on Totalitarianism


A 1939 American film starring Greta Garbo and Melvyn Douglas. Slowly, a Soviet agent is seduced by the freedom of the West. Of course it was banned in the Soviet Union.





we-the-living-italian-movie-posterWe the Living

A 1942 Italian drama made from Ayn Rand’s novel about the expression of individuality under the oppressive Soviet regime. Main actors Alida Valli, Rosanno Brazzi and Fosco Giachetti.





big-jim-mclainBig Jim McLain

A 1952 Cold War drama about US investigators breaking up a communist ring in Hawai. Starring John Wayne and Nancy Olson.






mv5bmtm5nduynzq4nv5bml5banbnxkftztcwnta4mtuymq-_v1_uy268_cr00182268_al_The Prisoner

A 1955 British drama on the communist attempt of mind-control, starring Alec Guinness and Jack Hawkins. A cardinal is falsely accused of treason, and a sly investigator succeeds in breaking him.






A 1982 Polish film about false imprisonment under the Stalinist Polish regime of the early 1950s. Banned until 1989. Main actors Krystyna Janda and Adam Ferency.






mv5bmje3otewmjk2nl5bml5banbnxkftztcwotgwntmymq-_v1_uy268_cr10182268_al_The Killing Fields

A 1984 British drama film on the bloodthirsty 1975–79 communist regime in Cambodia. Main actors Sam Waterston, Haing S. Ngor and John Malkovich.






thechekist-1The Chekist

A 1992 Russian drama film about the tireless efforts of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka (later GPU, NKVD and KGB) to suppress the Russian population. Directed by Aleksandr Rogozhkin. Not in distribution, but available on Youtube.






51spp5h0z0lThe Blue Kite

A 1993 Chinese drama on the changing fortunes of a boy during the Hundred Flowers Campaign, the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Directed by Tian Zhuangzhuang and banned in mainland China.





mv5bmtm4ntg0nzq1nl5bml5banbnxkftztcwoty4mtkymq-_v1_uy268_cr20182268_al_The Tunnel

A 2001 television drama about the escape, in the early 1960s, of various people from East Berlin to the West. Main actors Heino Ferch, Nicolette Krebitz, Alexandra Maria Lara and Sebastian Koch.





i_am_davidI Am David

A 2003 drama film on the escape of a 12 year old boy from a communist prison camp in Eastern Europe and his journey to the free country of Denmark. Main actors Ben Tibber and Jim Caviezel.





51ij-8gwhclThe Lives of Others

A 2006 German drama film on the comprehensive surveillance society established by East German communists. Main actors Ulrich Mühle and Sebastian Koch.






51b6eufkhfl-_sy445_Heaven on Earth

A 2005 PBS documentary about the rise and fall of socialism, hosted by Ben Wattenberg.






mv5bmje3ndq4mzuznv5bml5banbnxkftztcwmzc0mjawmg-_v1_uy268_cr40182268_al_The Soviet Story

A 2008 documentary about Soviet communism, directed by Edvins Snore. The link between the two totalitarians creeds in Europe, Nazism and Stalinism, is emphasised.






poster227x227The Singing Revolution

A 2009 documentary about Estonia’s successful struggle for survival. Directed by James and Maureen Tusty.






maosgreatfamineMao’s Great Famine

A 2011 French documentary (also available in English) on the terrible 1958–1962 famine in China which was the consequence of Mao’s Great Leap Forward. Directed by Patrick Cabouat.

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